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Infant Feeding


  1. Baby-Friendly Initiative Strategy for Ontario. BFI Implementation Toolkit [Internet]. 2018. Available from:

  2. Beake S, Bick D, Narracott C, Chang YS. Interventions for women who have a caesarean birth to increase uptake and duration of breastfeeding: A systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Oct;13(4):e12390. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12390. Epub 2016 Nov 24. PMID: 27882659; PMCID: PMC6866035.

  3. Best Start Resource Centre. Populations with Lower Rates of Breastfeeding: A Summary of Findings [Internet]. Toronto, ON. 2015. Available from:

  4. Best Start Resource Centre. Prenatal Education Key Messages for Ontario [Internet]. 2015. Available from:

  5. Best Start Resource Centre. Targeted Support for Ontario Populations with Lower Rates of Breastfeeding: 2013-2016 [Internet]. Toronto, ON. 2017. Available from:

  6. Best Start Resource Centre. The Delivery of Prenatal Education in Ontario: A Summary of Research Findings [Internet]. 2019. Available from:

  7. BORN, 2014

  8. BORN, 2019

  9. Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. The BFI 10 Steps and WHO Code Outcome Indicators for Hospitals and Community Health Services. 2017. Available from:

  10. Brown, CRL, Dodds L, Legge A. Bryanton J, Semenic S. Factors influencing the reasons why mothers stop breastfeeding. 2014. Can J Public Health; 105, e179–e185.

  11. Buckley SJ. Executive Summary of Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies, and Maternity Care. J Perinat Educ. 2015; 24(3) 145-153.

  12. Canadian Pediatric Society. Practice Point: Timing of introduction of allergenic solids for infants at high risk [Internet]. 2019. Available from:

  13. Health Canada, Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. Nutrition for healthy term infants: Recommendations from birth to six months [Internet]. (2012). Available from:

  14. Health Canada, Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, & Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants: Recommendations from Six to 24 Months [Internet]. 2014. Available from:

  15. Ho NT, Li F, Lee-Sarwar KA, Tun HM, Brown BP, Pannaraj PS, Bender JM, Azad MB, Thompson AL, Weiss ST, Azcarate-Peril MA, Liyonjua AA, Kozyrskyj AL, Jaspan HB, Aldrovandi GM, Kuhn L. Meta-analysis of effects of exclusive breastfeeding on infant gut microbiota across populations. 2018. Nature Communications; 9:4169. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06473-x

  16. Kellams A, Harrel C, Omage S, Gregory C, Rosen-Carole C, and the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM Clinical Protocol #3: Supplementary Feedings in the Healthy Term Breastfed Neonate, Revised 2017 [Internet]. 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine; 12 (3): 1-11. Available from:

  17. Kim SK, Park S, Oh J, Kim J, Ahn S. Interventions promoting exclusive breastfeeding up to six months after birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Nurs Stud. 2018; 80: 132-137

  18. MacVicar S, Kirkpatrick P. The effectiveness and maternal satisfaction of breast-feeding support for women from disadvantaged groups: a comprehensive systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews & Implementation Reports. 2014; 12(6), 420-476.

  19. Maternal Newborn Dashboard – Key Performance Indicator Criterion Reference Guide v2.0. 2019. Available from:

  20. McFadden A, Gavine A, Renfrew MJ, Wade A, Buchanan P, Taylor JL, Veitch, Rennie AM, Crowther SA, Neiman S, MacGillivray S. Support for healthy breastfeeding mother with healthy term babies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017.

  21. Meedya S, Fernandez R, Fahy, K. Effect of educational and support interventions on long-term breastfeeding rates in primiparous women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017; 15(9) 2307-2332.

  22. Moore ER, Bergman N, Anderson GC, Medley N. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

  23. Pérez-Escamilla R, Martinez JL, Segura-Pérez S. Impact of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding and child health outcomes: a systematic review. 2016. Matern Child Nutr; 12(3):402-17.

  24. Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health. Standards of Postnatal Care for Mothers and Newborns in Ontario: Birth to one-week postnatal period. [Internet]. 2018. Available from:

  25. Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (RNAO). Best Practice Guideline: Breastfeeding – Promoting and Supporting the Initiation, Exclusivity, and Continuation of Breastfeeding in Newborns, Infants and Young Children. 3rd ed. [Internet]. Toronto, ON. 2018. Available from:

  26. Schmied V, Sheehan A, McCourt C, Dykes F, Beake S, Bick D. Women’s perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding support. Birth. 2011; 38(1) 49-60.

  27. Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit. Health@SimcoeMuskoka: Annual Community Report, 2017-2018. 2018. Barrie, ON. Available from:

  28. Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit. HealthFAX: Complimentary Food Introduction for Infants At-risk of Food Allergy [Internet]. 2019. Available from:

  29. SMDHU IFS, 2015-2019

  30. SMDHU IFS, 2015-2016

  31. SMDHU IFS, 2016

  32. SMDHU IFS, 2017-2019

  33. SMDHU IFS, 2019

  34. Smith H. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

  35. Toronto Public Health. Breastfeeding Protocols for Health Care Providers [Internet]. 2013. Toronto, ON. Available from:

  36. UNICEF, World Health Organization. Nurturing the Health and Wealth of Nations: The Investment Case for Breastfeeding [Internet]. 2017. New York, Geneva. Available from:

  37. Victora CG, Bahl, R, Barros AJD, Franca GVA, Horton S, Krasavec J, Murch S, Sankar MJ, Walker N, Rollins NC. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms and lifelong effect. The Lancet. 2016; 387: 475-490.

  38. Wood NK, Woods NF. Interventions that Enhance Breastfeeding Initiation, Duration, and Exclusivity: A Systematic Review. 2018. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing; 43 (6): 341-347.

  39. World Health Organization. International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes [Internet]. 1981. Geneva. Available from:

  40. World Health Organization. Statement: Exclusive breastfeeding for six months best for babies everywhere [Internet]. 2011. Available from:,of%20two%20years%20or%20beyond.

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