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Water Fluoridation References

Local and provincial statements and research

A Review of Community Water Fluoridation in 2015

This review by Dr. D. Ito was published in the Public Sector Digest, December 2015. It presents a portion of the scientific evidence on the benefits and risks of community water fluoridation.

A Report on Oral Health from Ontario's Chief Medical Officer of Health

Oral Health -- More than just cavities was published in April 2012, and written by Dr. Arlene King. It contains four recommendations to review policies and funding programs related to oral health care in Ontario, with an eye to improving access to oral health care services and programs for the most vulnerablew populations in Ontario. It includes a discussion of water fluoridation as a highly effective means of preventing tooth decay.

Simcoe Muskoka District Board of Health Position Paper 

Following the release of the Health Focus report, Oral Health in Simcoe and Muskoka, the board of health expressed concern over the evidence indicating higher levels of tooth decay in children in areas without community water fluoridation. The board presented its own position paper on fluoridation. 

City of Orillia summary report on consultations related to proposed community water fluoridation CAUTION: Large file (1,500+ pages)

In July, 2012, public works staff with the City of Orillia recommended community water fluoridation, following a series of public consultations. This report summarizes the process and includes transcripts of public hearings, submissions and the City staff recommendation.

Ontario Dental Association on Community Water Fluoridation

Ontario's dentist association has an extensive discussion on fluoride, its benefits and its safety. Their support for fluoridation is " driven by our dedication to the provision of exemplary oral health care to our patients and communities." 

Association of Local Public Health Agencies  (alPHa)  

In February this year, a conference of public health organizations voted overwhelmingly in favour of community water fluoridation. This document outlines the position and includes information backing up the stand.

Drinking Water Fluoridation: Statement by the Chief Medical Officer of Health for Ontario (French)   

Alarmed by the number of communities that had dropped fluoridation from their drinking supply, Dr. Arlene King issued a statement early in April, 2011.

Drinking Water Fluoridation: Letter from the Chief Medical Officer of Health (CMOH) for Ontario to The District Municipality of Muskoka

A letter to the Chair and Members of the Muskoka District Council from Dr. Arlene King issued 21 April 2011. The letter expresses concern about the possible loss of fluoridated water in certain communities, addresses the benefits of water fluoridation and urges the Council to reconfirm their support for the fluoridation of municipal water supplies on April 26th, 2011.

National statements and research

Canada’s Chief Dental Officer weighs in on the fluoride question

Canada has one of the best public water systems in the world, says the Chief Dental Officer of Canada. This brief statement offers some simple arguments about the national benefits of fluoridation in our community water supplies – and the scientific evidence of its safety.  

Health Canada Expert Panel on Fluoride

Health Canada assembled a panel of experts in early 2007 to deliberate on the health effects of exposure to fluoride in drinking water. The panel’s job was to conduct an assessment of the health impacts of fluoride in drinking water, determine the optimal concentration of fluoride in water and advise about total daily fluoride intake. The report summary can be read here.

Canadian Dental Association Fluoride FAQs

Simple answers to questions about fluoride from the national body representing dental professionals.

Opinion of the Quebec Public Health Ethics Committee

Discusses the pros and cons of a proposal to introduce mandatory fluoridation of municipal water in communities with populations of 5,000 or more.

Canadian Dental Association position paper on fluoride

The CDA supports the use of fluoride not only in drinking water but in toothpaste, mouthwash and through other supplements including gels, foams and varnishes applied by dentists.

Canadian Public Health Association “Fighting the good fight: fluoridation of drinking water”

The national body for public health organizations marked its centennial last year, with a website celebrating 12 great public health accomplishments. It declares fluoridation of drinking water as one of those top achievements.

Canadian Association of Public Health Dentistry position paper

Dentists who work in the public health system are staunch supporters of water fluoridation as a means of reaching the whole population.

International statements and research

World Health Organization stand on fluoride in drinking water

The United Nations World Health Organization calls for the implementation of fluoride programs to prevent poor dental health. A 2006 global consultation discussed the global burden of dental disease, most notably in high income countries. 

U.S. Surgeon General Statement on Fluoridation

Oral health is essential to general health, and fluoridation is "the most cost-effective, equitable and safe means to provide protection from tooth decay in a community," says the American Surgeon General.

British Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation

A systematic review looks at many research studies to gain the widest possible evidence. In this review, 214 studies were included and evaluated for accuracy and findings.

Australian Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation

A 2007 review of 77 studies conducted by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

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